ICAR - CENTRAL INSTITUTE FOR RESEARCH ON CATTLE (CIRC)
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Highlights
 
Genetic basis of inferior sperm quality and fertility of crossbred bull
  • Collected and computerized pedigree information of 480 Frieswal bulls.
  • Semen quality of 23 Frieswal bulls was evaluated. Out of them, 12 were good and 11 were poor quality semen producers. The average volume (ml), concentration (106 ml), motility (%), viability (%) and HOS reactivity (%) was 5.28, 1048.26, 59.06, 72.42 and 56.44, respectively in good quality semen producer bulls and 3.76, 719.02, 21.41, 31.39 and 21.18, respectively in poor quality semen producer.
  • A project website was developed: www.crossbredbulls.comPercoll gradient fraction of spermatozoal population, sperm RNA isolation and transcriptome analysis are in progress.
 
Characterization and differentiation of embryonic and spermatogonial stem cells in cattle and buffaloes
  • The cell culture laboratory has been established at the Directorate.
  • The technique of isolation of spermatogonial cells has been standardized.  Briefly, the minced testicular tissue was subjected to cell isolation by enzymatic digestion with cocktail of Collagenase, DNAse, Hyaluronidase and Trypsin.
  • The cell isolates were enriched by filtering through a 100 µ nylon filter to remove majority of the debris followed by 60 µ nylon filters to remove sertoli cells or the cells conglomeration.
  • The isolated cells were then cultured  in RPMI or DMEM at 37oC at 5% CO2 . The cells were maintained in culture up to 7 weeks.
  • The cell viability during enzymatic digestion and sub cultures was determined by trypan blue exclusion method.
 
Studies on genetic aspects of Holstein- Sahiwal crossbreds (Frieswal Project)
  • The total population of Frieswal females at 37 Military Farms at the end of year 2009 was   17114 including 10619 adult cows, 5104 young stocks and 1391 calves.
  • The strength of elite cows at various Military Farms was 969.
  • A total of 756 male calves including 57 in 2009, born out by elite mating at 25 Military Farms were sent to BRU, Meerut for rearing and future bull production in different years.
  • A total of 1844791 doses (including 166610 doses in 2009) of Frieswal semen have so far been produced at SF Laboratory, out of which 862282 (including 50725 in 2009) were distributed to different Military Farms.
  • The overall mean of age (AFC) at first calving in Frieswal cows was 975.71 days.
  • The least squares mean of service period (SP), dry period (DP) and calving interval (CI) was 167.60, 119.65 and 442.31 days, respectively.
  • The overall least squares mean of 300 days milk yield (MY300), total milk yield (TMY), peak yield (PY) and lactation length (LL) was 3308.65 kg, 3352.50 kg, 15.04 kg and 331.90 days, respectively.
  • The simple average of MY300 in first lactation was 2860 kg. It improved over the parities and reached to the level of 3543 kg in 4th lactation.
  • Estimate of heritability for AFC (0.07±0.016), TMY (0.06±0.010), MY300 (0.055±0.011) and PY (0.015±0.004) was low. SP, DP and CI were also low heritable (0.018±0.007, 0.012±0.006 and 0.016±0.006).
  • A total of ninety bulls have been recently evaluated for their genetic merit based on 1st lactation 300 days milk yield of their daughters. Top ten bulls had their breeding values between 2970 and 3092 kg. Their superiority over the herd average (2824 kg) ranged from 146 to 268 kg.
 
Genetic studies on performance of important indigenous breeds of cattle and their improvement through selection (Indigenous Breeds Project)
Ongole breed:
  • A total of 57 bulls in seven sets have so far been inducted in the program.
  • The number of inseminations performed in different sets was 7449.
  •  A total of 2996 daughters have so far been born since inception of the project.
  • Frozen semen doses available in stock on 31st December 2009 were 202443.
  • One thousand one hundred and ninety three daughters (1st  to 6th sets) have reached at the age of calving, out of which 922 have completed their 1st lactation
  • The average age at first calving was 52.97 months.
  • The average first lactation milk yield, peak yield and lactation length were 516 kg, 2.72 kg and 204 days, respectively.
  • The first service period, dry period and calving interval averaged 186, 375 and 468 days, respectively during the year 2009.
New Breeds:
  • Three new breeds viz., Sahiwal at NDRI, Karnal; Gir at JAU, Junagadh; and Kankrej at DAU, Dantiwada under Indigenous Breed Project started w.e.f. November 2009.
 
Field Recording of performance data for undertaking large scale progeny testing (Field Progeny Testing Project)
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary & Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana
  • A total of 190 bulls have so far been used in nine different sets.
  • Overall conception rate was 44.5 %.
  • The milk yield showed increasing trend among the progenies of different sets.
  • The average 1st lactation 305 days lactation   milk yield  of the daughters of first six sets of bulls was 2698 (range 2254 to 3001), 2827 (range 2397 to 3265), 2879 (range 2410 to 3406), 2896 (range 2351 to 3334), 2904 (range 2335 to 3770), and 3157 kg (range 2319 to 3959 kg), respectively.
  • The average first lactation 305 days milk yield of the crossbred progenies in the adopted villages in the year 1993 was 2449.7±57.0 kg which has increased to 2904.0±37.7 kg in the year 2009.
  • The age at first calving showed a positive trend and it decreased from 1192 days for the progeny born from the bulls used in set 1 to 1052 days for the progenies of set 5.
Kerala Agricultural University, Mannuthy
  • One hundred seventy four bulls have so far been used in 10 different sets.
  • Overall conception rate was 37.6 %.
  • The milk yield showed increasing trend among the progenies of different sets.
  • The average 305 days milk yield was 1958 (range 1587 to 2164), 1977 (1705 to 2170), 2098 (1788 to 2486), 2190 (1889 to 2552), 2209 (range 1739 to 2469) and 2250 kg (2236 to 2957 kg) in different setsrespectively.
  • The average fat percentage of the milk from the progenies of these sets was 3.46, 4.26, 3.97, 4.15, 4.11 and 4.11, respectively. 
BAIF, Uruli-Kanchan, Pune
  • A total of 166 bulls have so far been used in eight different sets since inception of the project.
  • Overall conception rate was 45.3 %.
  • The average 305 days milk yield was  2930, 2848, 2965, 2973 and 2884 kg, respectively in different sets.
  • The average age at first calving was 991, 1008, 1000, 992 and 989 days for the progenies born from the bulls used in first five sets, respectively.
  • The fat percentage was 3.7 at this unit.
New Units
  • Two new FPT units at ICAR Complex NEH Region, Gangtok, Sikkim and GBPUA&T, Pantnagar, Uttrakhand started w.e.f. September, 2009.
 
Determination of milk composition in Frieswal cattle
  • A total of 6804 milk samples were collected and analyzed from Frieswal cows since inception of the project.
  • The over all Fat, Protein, Lactose and SNF percentage was 3.91±0.01, 3.03±0.01, 4.54±0.01 and 8.29±0.01 in the milk of Frieswal cows.
 
Utilization of matabolizable (RDP and RUP) protein in diets of Frieswal cattle for increasing productivity
  • Among protein supplements, cottonseed cake and soybean cake had the higher RUP values. Among forages, berseem had higher RUP values compared to other forages.
  • The total dry matter intake by growing Frieswal bull calves fed on BRU feeding standard, NRC feeding standard with normal RDP and RUP for 700 g gain and NRC feeding standard with RDP and RUP for 1000 g gain from wheat straw, green fodder and concentrate mixture was 3.87, 4.17 and 4.86 kg/d in group 1, 2 and 3, respectively.
  • The total gain during feeding period in three groups was 23.8, 30.4 and 36.6 kg thus yielding an ADG of 476.0, 608.0 and 772 g, respectively. The consumption of feed for obtaining per kg gain in three groups was 8.23, 7.28 and 6.54 kg, respectively.
 
Soil-Plant-Animal interrelation ship of macro and micro minerals in Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh
  • The Zn, Cu and Co content of water collected from different areas ranged between 0.059-0.242, 0.039-0.048 and 0.042-0.134 ppm, respectively.
  • Groundnut cake and Gram chuni had higher Zn content then the reported values.
  • The concentration of Zn, Cu and Co in blood plasma of cattle and buffalo collected from Loamy and Calcareous area of Meerut District found to be optimum and ranged between 1.98-2.19, 1.36-1.63 and 1.23-1.85 ppm of blood plasma.
  • The soil pH in different soils and seasons ranged from 6.68 – 6.98 and 6.77 – 6.95 respectively, and did not show any specific trend. Similarly pH of water collected from different soils in various seasons ranged from 8.19-8.34 and 8.22-8.27 and also did not show any specific trend
 
Studies on body conformation characteristics on reproductive potential of Frieswal bulls
  • Body weights (Kg) of 187 Frieswal young and adult bulls were recorded and analyzed.
  •  From the preliminary analysis, it was revealed that average daily gain (g/day) was highest at 13-24 months of age i.e. at pubertal and immediate post–pubertal periods.
  • This might be attributed to change in hormonal milieu around pubertal age.
  • Growth rate up to 1 year of age was little lower than that of 1-2 years of age, however it did not differ significantly (P <0.05).
  • After 2 years of age average daily body weight gain reduced gradually with advancement of age. Other body morphometric characteristics of Frieswal bulls have also been recorded.
  •  For obtaining meaningful values of vital statistics of body characteristics features of Frieswal bulls, more numbers of bulls will be incorporated  in subsequent years of studies.
 
Characterization and differentiation of embryonic and spermatogonial stem cells in cattle and buffaloes
  • The cell culture laboratory has been established at the Directorate.
  • The technique of isolation of spermatogonial cells has been standardized.  Briefly, the minced testicular tissue was subjected to cell isolation by enzymatic digestion with cocktail of Collagenase, DNAse, Hyaluronidase and Trypsin.
  • The cell isolates were enriched by filtering through a 100 µ nylon filter to remove majority of the debris followed by 60 µ nylon filters to remove sertoli cells or the cells conglomeration.
  • The isolated cells were then cultured  in RPMI or DMEM at 37oC at 5% CO2 . The cells were maintained in culture up to 7 weeks.
  • The cell viability during enzymatic digestion and sub cultures was determined by trypan blue exclusion method.
 
Development of a double PCR-RFLP based diagnostic strategy for identifying genetic marker within the promoter region of HSP70 gene in Frieswal
  • Double PCR-RFLP was used to identify deletion of cytosine within the AP2 box of HSP70.1 promoter.
  • Two hundred Frieswal cows were genotyped using double PCR-RFLP to identify deletion of cytosine within the Hsp70.1 promoter AP2 box at base position 895. 
  • Homozygous wild type genotypes (CC) were found in lower frequency (39.29, n=78) than heterozygous cytosine deletion mutant genotypes (C-) (60.71, n= 122).
  • In the observed physiological parameters (rectal temperature, respiration rate and heat tolerance coefficient), cows that were homozygous wild types had better significant (P<0.05) summer tolerance than the heterozygous deletion genotypes.
  • Cytosine deletion mutation in the promoter region negatively affected (P<0.01) the expression of Hsp70.1 mRNA in peripheral bovine mononuclear cells (PBMC) subjected to in vitro heat stress. Further association of observed polymorphism with the milk production traits was significant as the heterozygous cytosine deletion cows had lower Total Milk Yield, Peak Yield, Yield at 300 days, Protein% (P<0.01) and Fat% (P<0.05) than the native wild type promoter cows.
 
Evaluation of three microsatellite markers as an alternative biomarkers for semen quality traits in cross bred bull
  • Three Y specific microsatellite markers (INRA126, INRA 189 and BM861) were evaluated for their association with some of the semen quality parameters (semen volume, sperm concentration, Number of sperm/ejaculate, motility and post thaw motility percentage)  ofFrieswal (HF x Sahiwal) bulls.
  • After combining the major alleles of the three loci, a total eleven combination were obtained. Association studies of the combined genotypes with semen quality parameters in Frieswal bulls revealed that, 186/89/160; 184/96/164 and 184/96/160 haplotypes having significantly (P<0.01) noticeable semen volume (4.67±0.53); concentration (1042.24±96.76) and number of sperm/ejaculates (3376.80±88.77) respectively.
  • No association was observed with motility and post thaw motility percentage of bull semen.
 
Molecular characterization and sequence analysis of Bosindicus full length integrin, beta6 (ITGB6) receptor for FMD host tropism
  • To understand the different susceptibility against FMDV between the two cattle species from the standpoint of viral receptors, the present study reports the cloning, characterization and  sequence analysis of integrin, beta 6 (ITGB6) receptor of zebu cattle.
  • The complete CDS of zebu ITGB6  was 2367 basepair in length with 788 amino acid residues. The zebu integrin share common structural and functional elements with taurine and other species.
  • We identified that, three amino substitution (S665to F665 ;  Q781 to R 781 and L785 to F785) presents in ITGB6 gene among zebu and taurine.
 
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2. केंद्रीय गोवंश अनुसंधान संस्थान में हिंदी सप्ताह का शुभारम्भ
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7. Organized XVI Annual Review Meet of AICRP on Cattle at NASC, New Delhi on 22/06/2017
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